Skip to main content

Write SQL queries

Transform data from Cognite RAW into the CDF data model using built-in and customer Spark SQL queries. This article describes the queries and explains how you can load data incrementally.

Read data from CDF

From a RAW table

To select data from a RAW table, use the syntax mydb.mytable.

select * from mydb.mytable

If your database or table name contains special characters, enclose the name in backticks, for example `my-db`.`my table`.

From other CDF resource types

To select other CDF resource types, use the syntax _cdf.resource_type.

select * from _cdf.events

The supported resource types are:

  • _cdf.events
  • _cdf.assets
  • _cdf.files
  • _cdf.timeseries
  • _cdf.sequences
  • _cdf_sequences.<sequence_externalId>
  • _cdf.datapoints
  • _cdf.stringdatapoints
  • _cdf.labels
  • _cdf.relationships

Load data incrementally

When reading from RAW tables, you probably want to transform only the data that has changed since the last transformation job ran. To achieve this, you can filter on the lastUpdatedTime column to query for the rows that have changed after a specific timestamp. When filtering on lastUpdatedTime, the filter is pushed down to the RAW service itself, so this query can be performed efficiently. For example: select * from mydb.mytable where lastUpdatedTime > to_timestamp(123456).

Instead of encoding the timestamp directly in the query and manually keeping it up to date every time new data has been processed, you can use the is_new function. This function returns true when a row has changed since the last time the transformation was run and false otherwise.

The first time you run a transformation using the query below, all the rows of mytable will be processed:

select * from mydb.mytable where is_new("mydb_mytable", lastUpdatedTime)

If the transformation completes successfully, the second run will only process rows that have changed since the first run.

If the transformation fails, is_new filters the same rows the next time the transformation is run. This ensures that there is no data loss in the transformation from source to destination.

note

Incremental load is disabled when previewing query results. That is, is_new will always return true for all rows.

Each is_new filter is identified by a name (for example,"mydb_mytable") and can be set to any constant string. This allows you to differentiate between multiple calls to is_new in the same query and use is_new to filter on multiple tables. To easily identify the different filters, we recommend that you use the name of the table as the name of the is_new filter.

Backfill

To process all the data even if it hasn't changed since the last transformation, change the name of the is_new filter, for example, by adding a postfix with an incrementing number (e.g. "mydb_mytable_1").

This is especially useful when the logic of the query changes and data that has already been imported needs to be updated accordingly.

Custom SQL functions

In addition to the built-in Spark SQL functions, we also provide a set of custom SQL functions to help you write efficient transformations.

note

When a function expects var_args, it allows a variable number of arguments of any type, including star *.

get_names

get_names(var_args): Array[String]

Returns an array of the field names of a struct or row.

Example

select get_names(*) from mydb.mytable
-- Returns the column names of 'mydb.mytable'
select get_names(some_struct.*) from mydb.mytable
-- Returns the field names of 'some_struct'

cast_to_strings

cast_to_strings(var_args): Array[String]

Casts the arguments to an array of strings. It handles array, struct and map types by casting it to JSON strings.

Example

select cast_to_strings(*) from mydb.mytable
-- Returns the values of all columns in 'mydb.mytable' as strings

to_metadata

to_metadata(var_args): Map[String, String]

Creates metadata compatible type from the arguments. In practice it does map_from_arrays(get_names(var_args), cast_to_strings(var_args)). Use this function when you want to transform your columns or structures into a format that fits the metadata field in CDF.

Example

select to_metadata(*) from mydb.mytable
-- Creates a metadata structure from all the columns found in 'mydb.mytable'

to_metadata_except

to_metadata_except(excludeFilter: Array[String], var_args)

Returns a metadata structure (Map[String, String]) where strings found in excludeFilter will exclude keys from var_args.

Use this function when you want to put most, but not all, columns into metadata, for example to_metadata_except(array("someColumnToExclude"), *)

Example

select to_metadata_except(array("myCol"), myCol, testCol) from mydb.mytable
-- Creates a map where myCol is filtered out.
-- The result in this case will be Map("testCol" -> testCol.value.toString)

asset_ids

asset_ids(assetNames: Array[String], rootAssetName: String): Array[BigInt]

Attempts to find Asset names in the asset hierarchy which have rootAssetName as their root Asset. The function returns the IDs of the assets matched.

See Assets for more information about assets in CDF.

important

The entire job will be aborted if asset_ids() did not find any matching assets.

Example

select asset_ids(array("PV10"), "MyBoat")

is_new

is_new(name: String, version: Timestamp)

Returns true if the version provided is higher than the version found with the specified name, based on the last time the transformation was run.

  • If the transformation completes successfully, the next transformation job only processes rows that have changed since the start of the last successfully completed transformation job.

  • If the transformation fails, is_new processes all rows that have changed since the start of the last successful run. This ensures no data loss in the transformation from source to destination. See also Load data incrementally.

Tip

If you're using more than one occurrence of is_new() in one transformation, we recommend that you use different variable names. This guarantees that subqueries within one transformation don't override the lastUpdatedTime record before the transformation is completed.

Example

select * from mydb.mytable where is_new("mydb_mytable_version", lastUpdatedTime)
-- Returns only rows that have changed since the last successful run

dataset_id

dataset_id(externalId: String): BigInt

Attempts to find the id of the given data set by externalId and returns the id if the externalId exists.

Example

select dataset_id("EXAMPLE_DATASET") as dataSetId